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HOW TO PRAY THE ROSARY

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This week for our theological article, we will be explaining how to pray the Rosary.

It was once thought that the Rosary originated with the Rosary beads of the Middle East and Asia. Another theory is that it originated with monks who used them count the one-hundred-and-fifty psalms. It was Saint Dominic who spread devotion to the Rosary.  In 1208, Saint Dominic (1170 – 1221) was praying in a chapel in Prouille, France. While he was praying, he had a vision of the Virgin Mary. The Mother of God gave St. Dominic the Rosary and taught him how to pray it.

To pray the Rosary, begin by making the sign of the cross:

“In the name of the Father, and the son, and the Holy Spirit, Amen.”

At the crucifix, pray the Apostles Creed:

“I believe in God the Father Almighty Creator of heaven and earth; And in Jesus Christ, His only son, our Lord who was conceived the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontious Pilate, he was crucified, died, and was buried. He descended into hell. On the third day, He rose again from the dead; he ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from there He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting. Amen.”

At the first Rosary bead, pray an Our Father:

“Our Father, who art in heaven, Hallowed by thy name: Thy Kingdom come: Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.Gives us this day our daily bread: and forgive us our trespasses As we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation: but deliver us from evil. Amen”

Followed by three Hail Mary’s:

“Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: Blessed art thou among women, And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and the hour of our death. Amen”

Then pray a Glory Be:

“Glory be to the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.”

And a Fatima prayer:

“O my Jesus, forgive us our sins, saves us from the fires of hell, and lead all souls to heaven, especially those in most need of Your Mercy.”

At the fourth bead, announce the first mystery, then pray one Our Father and ten Hail Mary’s. There are five categories of mysteries: the Joyful Mysteries, the Sorrowful Mysteries, the Glorious Mysteries, and the Luminous Mysteries. Repeat this process across all five mysteries.

Finally, finish by praying the Hail Holy Queen:

“Hail, Holy Queen, Mother of Mercy! Our life, our sweetness, and our hope! To thee we do cry, poor banished children of Eve; to thee do we send up our sighs, mourning and weeping in this valley, of tears. Turn, then, most gracious advocate, thine eyes of mercy towards us; and after this our exile show unto us the blessed fruit of thy womb, Jesus; o clement, o loving, o sweet Virgin Mary. Amen.”

And a concluding prayer:

“O God, whose only-begotten Son by His life, death and resurrection, has purchased for us the rewards of eternal life; grant, we beseech Thee, that by meditating upon these mysteries of the Blessed Virgin Mary, we may imitate what they contain and obtain what they promise, through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.”

BUSTING THE MYTH OF THE DARK AGES

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Is there any other time in history more malaligned than the Middle Ages?  Our modern conception of the so-called “dark ages” is that it was time characterised by superstition, barbarity, oppression, ignorance with a few outbreaks of the plague, just to make things interesting.

This view has been helped by numerous so-called educational resources. BBC’s Bitesize website, for example, takes a leaf from certain 19th-century British historians,  the type of who saw Catholics as ignorant and childish, and caricatures Medieval peasants as “extremely superstitious” individuals who were “encouraged to rely on prayers to the saints and superstition” for guidance through life.  It even accuses the Catholic Church of stagnating human thought and impeding technological development.

This does not represent the view, however, of many serious historians and academics. As Professor Ronald Numbers of Cambridge University explains:

“Notions such as: ‘the rise of Christianity killed off ancient science’, ‘the medieval Christian Church  suppressed the growth of the natural sciences’, ‘the medieval Christians thought that the world was  flat’, and ‘the Church prohibited autopsies and dissections during the Middle Ages’ [are] examples of  widely popular myths that still pass as historical truth, even though they are not supported by  historical research.’

In reality, the Middle Ages saw advances in law, politics, the sciences, theology, philosophy, and more. It saw the birth of the chartered town which ushered in the tradition of local self-governance. The existence of a strong papacy laid the foundations of limited political power as it prevented monarchs, who justified their power through their so-called “unique” relationship with God and the Church, from monopolising power.  This symbolic limitation on monarchical power was manifested in the Magna Carta (1215) and the birth of the English Parliament.

The people of the Middle Ages produced magnificent Gothic cathedrals and churches. Many medieval monks became patrons of the arts and many were even artists themselves. In literature, the Middle Ages saw Dante’s the Divine Comedy and Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. In music, the Middle Ages laid the foundation of Western classical music and saw the development of musical notation, western harmony, and many of the Christmas carols we know and love today.

Likewise, the Carolingian Renaissance of the 8th and 9th centuries saw advancements in the study of literature, architecture, jurisprudence, and theology. Medieval scholars and scientists, many of whom were monks and friars, studied natural philosophy, mathematics, engineering, geography, optics, and medicine.

In the spirit of intellectual and spiritual enlightenment, many universities, including Oxford University, Cambridge University, and the University of Cologne. These universities educated their students on law, medicine, theology, and the arts. In addition, the period also saw the foundation of many schools and many early Christian monasteries were committed to the education of the common people.

The Middle Ages saw advances in science, literature, philosophy, theology, the arts, music, politics, law, and more. Its legacy is all around us: whether it is in the limitations placed on the powers of Governments, the music we listen to, or in the tradition of education many of us have benefited from. In an era of political correctness perhaps we should be wondering whether we’re living in the “dark ages.”